The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment Placement Program (VB-MAPP) is an assessment of language and communication, which also evaluates barriers for learners. This tool is norm-referenced and can provide a snapshot of performance, as compared to typically developing language development. The VB-MAPP scores performance as Level 1: 0-18 months, Level 2: 18-36 months, and Level 3: 36-48 months. The VB-MAPP Milestones Assessment is the most commonly used component of this overall system of assessment. It assesses the following skills: mand, tact, echoic, intraverbal (IV), listener responding (LR), motor imitation, independent play, social and social play, visual perceptual and matching-to-sample (VPS/MTS), linguistic structure, group and classroom skills, and early academics. Also included in the Milestones Assessment is the Early Echoic Skills Assessment (EESA) subtest, which was developed by Barbara E. Esch, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, BCBA-D. The EESA breaks down echoic skills into its base components – simple & reduplicated syllables, 2-syllable combinations, 3-syllable combinations, and spoken phrases. The EESA is structured so that the learner should be able to reliably vocalize targets as a progression.


The VB-MAPP is comprised of 3 Milestone Levels. Each milestone level is comprised of skill categories, adding additional skill categories as you move up milestone levels, with 5 Mastery Levels each. When used as a system of assessment and reassessment, the VB-MAPP allows evaluators to identify gaps and recognize splintered skills. Each mastery skill level is comprised of a different number of component skills. These component skills, when mastered, should allow for the acquisition of the mastery skill. Results are meant to be recorded and then visually displayed. Upon each administration, the evaluator is to use a different color to indicate growth and progress.

A sample scoring sheet is provided below to help the reader better understand how the scoring and system work, but since the VB-MAPP is a fully paid system, it is not a usable form.

  • Level 1 is comprised of the following 9 skills – Mand, Tact, LR, VP/MTS, Play, Social, Echoic, and Vocal. Each of the skills has 5 Mastery Levels with component skills.
    • Consists of Mastery Levels 1-5.
  • Level 2 there are 12 skills, Vocal is no longer targeted, and added skills include Listener Responding by Function, Feature, Class (LRFFC), Intraverbal (IV), Group, and Linguistics.
    • Consists of Mastery Levels 6-10.
    • LRFFC, IV, Group, and Linguistics start at Mastery Level 6, there is no 1-5.
  • Level 3 has 13 skills, maintaining the previous 12 and adding the category of Math.
    • Consists of Mastery Levels 11-15.
    • Math starts at Mastery Level 11, there is no 1-10.

Relevant Journal Articles

Below is a list of relevant journal articles I have reviewed for this site.


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